13. On an Approach to Constructing the Extremes in the Tasks of Optimal Solutions Search

13. On an Approach to Constructing the Extremes in the Tasks of Optimal Solutions Search

Shekhovtsov V. S.

Yangel Yuzhnoye State Design Office, Dnipro, Ukraine

Kosm. teh. Raket. vooruž. 2018, (2); 117-126
Language: Russian
The purpose of the article is development of a modified variational method to determine extremals in the tasks of search for optimal solutions. The method has been developed using the results of investigations of the first variation of functional with autonomous subintegral function for the problem with fixed ends. The assumption of non-zero values of variation of function at boundary points has been introduced. It is shown that when using this assumption and introducing some other assumptions and limitations, it is possible to expand the class of permissible functions, among which the extremal curves should be sought for. With this expansion, to construct one extremal it is necessary to use two conditions of extremeness, one of which is Euler equation. To fulfill them, it is necessary to realize the constancy of partial derivative from subintegral function of desired variable at each point of interval considered. The new condition of extremeness unlike Euler equation is noninvariant relative to coordinate system. The use of this property allows, at presentation of the second variation of functional in parametrical form, constructing the solutions that satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions of local minimum (maximum). It is noted that the proposed method is the first step in the development of a new approach to solution of multidimensional variational problems. The use of the latter will allow obtaining new solutions of various problems of technical mechanics, such as the task of determining optimal trajectory parameters of launch vehicles in the phase of designing and development of technical proposals, selection of optimal flight modes et al. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by example of solving the known problem about brachistichrone – determination of the curve of quickest descent. Using the method, two curves have been constructed that satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality. The results are presented of comparison of time of material point descent along the proposed curves and descent along classical extremals. It is shown that the time of descent along the proposed curves is shorter than that at descent along classical exteremals.
Key words: the first variation of functional, combined usage of conditions of extremeness, noninvariance relative to coordinate system, parametrical form of the second variation, optimal curves of descent.


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